Network Troubleshooting Tools in Windows Operating System

Windows contains an assortment of utilities you can use to diagnose, monitor, and repair network connections. Here’s an overview of the key tools you’ll find in Windows Operating System and what they’re used for.

Get MAC Address (Getmac.exe)
Discovers the Media Access Control (MAC) address, and lists associated network protocols for all network cards in a computer, either locally or across a network.

Hostname (Hostname.exe)
Displays the host name of the current computer.

IP Configuration Utility (Ipconfig.exe)
Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values, and refreshes DHCP and DNS settings.

Name Server Lookup (Nslookup.exe)
Displays information about Domain Name System records for specific IP addresses and/or host names so that you can troubleshoot DNS problems.

Net services commands (Net.exe)
Performs a broad range of network tasks; type net with no parameters to see a full list of available command-line options.

Netstat (Netstat.exe)
Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, and IPv4/IPv6 statistics.

Network Command Shell (Netsh.exe)
Displays or modifies the network configuration of a local or remote computer that is currently running; this command-line scripting utility has a huge number of options, which are fully detailed in Help.

PathPing (Pathping.exe)
Combines functions of Traceroute and Ping to identify problems at a router or network link.

TCP/IP NetBIOS Information (Nbtstat.exe)
Displays statistics for NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) protocol, NetBIOS name tables for both the local computer and remote computers, and the NetBIOS name cache.

TCP/IP Ping (Ping.exe)
Verifies IP-level connectivity to another internet address by sending ICMP packets and measuring response time in milliseconds.

TCP/IP Route (Route.exe)
Displays and modifies entries in the local IP routing table.

TCP/IP Traceroute (Tracert.exe)
Determines the path to an internet address and lists the time required to reach each hop; useful for troubleshooting connectivity problems on specific network segments.

What is the difference between TCP and UDP?

TCP is a connection oriented protocol, which means that everytime a packet is sent say from host A to B, we will get an acknowledgement. Whereas UDP on the other hand, is a connection less protocol.

Where will it be used : TCP -> Say you have a file transfer and you need to ensure that the file reaches intact, and time is not a factor, in such a case we can use TCP.

UDP-> Media Streaming, question is say you are watching a movie…would you prefer that your movie comes..perfectly….but u need to wait a long time before you see the next frame ?..or would you prefer the movie to keep streaming…Yes…The second option is definely better….This is when we need UDP

What is ARP/RARP?

ARP: Stands for Address Resolution Protocol…whenever a request is sent by a node on one network to the node on another network the Physical address(MAC) is required and for this the IP address need to be flow over the network..whenver a router with that network (IP) gets the msg. the required MAC address is sent through the network this process of converting the IP address to MAC address is Called ARP..and the reverse thats the convertion of the Mac address to the IP address is called RARP ( Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)